Application Notes - General

Clock Module FAQs

This application note introduces our range of advanced clock modules which provide electrical timing functionality for distributed network systems. These units primarily revolve around the 1PPS (pulse per second) timing synchronisation signal produced by a GPS receiver which is derived from transmitted timing information received from GPS satellite systems ......


Frequency Control for Telecommunications

Mobile communications applications require extremely accurate synchronisation of the signal frequency throughout the network. Without absolute frequency stability typically within ±0.05ppm at all points, cut-outs and failed calls will occur. To minimise frequency discrepancies, each timing device within the network is locked to an external reference source, e.g. GPS in the case of CDMA. This imposes two key requirements on each timing device: it must be able to synchronise adequately to the reference clock over its entire lifetime of ten years or more, and it must be able to hold its frequency stable for a period of 24 hours or more in the event of loss of the external reference signal ......


Jitter and Phase Noise

A measurement of the performance of a frequency system is its stability, i.e. the level of fluctuations in frequency over a suitable measurand. The goal is to keep these fluctuations to a minimum; however noise and jitter are unavoidable within a system and can negatively affect the performance ......


Pluto™ Temperature Compensation

Temperature is an important factor when specifying the stability of crystal oscillators. By compensating for the effects of temperature on the oscillation frequency of the crystal, a TCXO can exhibit up to 100 times better stability over its operating temperature range than a comparable uncompensated oscillator ......


Quartz Based Frequency Products Shelf Life

The purpose of this brief is to detail what can happen to a quartz based timing device while stored on the shelf and when this could cause a problem ......


Quartz Crystal Ageing

Ageing of a quartz crystal results in a small change of frequency overtime and this effect may have to be taken into account by the customer when designing their circuit depending upon the overall specification that needs to be achieved. There are two main causes of ageing in quartz crystals, one due to mass-transfer and the other due to stress ......


Quartz Crystal Handling Precautions

A quartz crystal unit includes a small strip or disk of quartz that is processed to an exact size and thickness dependent on the customer specified resonating frequency. The quartz is plated with conducting electrodes and mounted in a hermetically sealed protective enclosure ......


Quartz Crystal Resonators

The importance of quartz crystal resonators in electronics results from their extremely high Q, relatively small size and excellent temperature stability. A quartz crystal resonator uses the piezoelectric properties of quartz. The direct piezoelectric effect refers to the electric polarization of certain materials brought about by the application of mechanical stress ......


Tape & Reel Details

Here you can find information about IQD Tape and Reel information and Statek Tape and Reel information. All dimensions are based on international stanrdard EIA-481-D ......


Timekeeping with Quartz Crystals

Since its introduction the 32.768kHz miniature watch crystal has become the most popular time keeping reference ever. This application note is intended to give some guidance as to the use of quartz crystals in time keeping applications ......